10th First language Kannada: What has changed?
It was in 2017 February we decided to use Podcast as a channel to deliver audiobooks and it has been a year! And when we did, 10th standard first language Kannada textbook was the first one to be uploaded. Here is a report written by Jyothi Jayakumar and Lavanya Hebbalmath that I have edited summarising the changes that our volunteers meticulously documented while proofreading the textbook. This was a proper academic comparison and probably first of its kind and hence we have structured it in the form of a short review paper. In this publication of podcast, we have included audio file size in the podcast description. This will help listeners. The chapter/episode URLs are now intuitive mapping on to chapter numbers. We would like to thank our teachers who supported in this piece of work:
10th standard first language Kannada textbook titled “ಸವಿಗನ್ನಡ” was published recently (2017). It was an interesting exercise for us to digitise these textbook in several ways. From what is mentioned, the revision was initiated as a response to public concerns on the content of textbooks. The note does not mention the concerns and details the events that lead to formation of a 27 member committeesaround end of 2014 for various books (all books from 1-10th). The committee included teachers and subject experts. The revised textbook was implemented from year 2018. The note mentions about the independent groups and organizations that communicated the sort of corrections to the Textbook Society. They note both purpose/intent and content errors, that the committee took into account to revise the textbooks apparently. The note also mentions several discussions and workshops to refine the content. Inputs from teachers with questionnaire was also collected. There was also a committee setup to compare the state textbooks with NCERT, particularly for science social sciences, science and mathematics. The note also mentions comparison with textbooks of neighbouring states.
Keeping these changes, it looks like the most appropriate changes, for Kannada language textbook could possibly be only to do with resolving the content with concerns and correcting errors. Comparing the textbooks with NCERT and so does the special committee for textbooks does not apply for languages - this is our impression unless this note was written as a general note for all the textbooks. The note also particularly mention in that this release is only a revision and not a complete rewrite of the textbook. The content however has been revised keeping in mind gender equality and regional representation, national integration, equality, social harmony following the national and state framework for textbooks. The next part jumps on to say these revisions and considerations have been done systematically and thanks the 27 committees.
Taking things at the face value, we have put together some objective comparison and some fact checks. Kannada Pustaka was probably the only organisation that took up such line-to-line comparison of both the 2014 and 2017 editions. Our objective was quite simple: to pick up content that is common and retained in recent publication instead of repeating the effort. After all, we are a team of volunteers and the time of every volunteer is important and invaluable. So we sent out the textbook chapters with a notes to volunteers to pay attention to every word.
The process we followed is detailed in the schematic below. Note that through our network of volunteers, we proofread the chapters at least 5-8 times and independently corrected and reviewed by the volunteers.
How we did it?
Lavanya Hebbalmath coordinated the proofreading of this textbook. The revised textbook was sourced from the Karnataka textbook society website. Text from the PDF was extracted and converted from ASCII to Unicode using Aravinda VK’s online converter. Shimogarakesh converted the audio and uploaded on website/podcast on 2nd february 2018. We had produced the 2014 publication of this textbook last year around February 2017. Around August 2017, Lavanya initiated the conversion and Jyothi Venkatasubramanya was involved in compiling the unique changes in chapters in the new publication. Jyothi Venkatasubramanya also added description to figures and helped with ಛಂದಸ್ಸು part towards the end and also lead the comparison of the latest release with 2015 release. Our volunteers corrected the chapters with extra care expecting to see changes both big and small. All the changes discussed below were diligently observed documented and made into a table and shared with volunteers for proofreading. In total, the new textbook was converted to 22 episodes (equivalent to 22 chapters) of a total audio run time of 6 hours 50 minute audio. A total of 15 volunteers contributed 280 hours in total over a period of 5 months. In short, each volunteer contributed about 3 working days of their time to accomplish this! This does not count the time involved in creation of the first edition that we released in 2017 February, however, the names of the contributors of 2015 versions for the retained chapters were duly retained to acknowledge their contribution in the past and additional contributors list was added.
A summary of changes
Overall, the changes that we see in the 2017 versions can be categorised into two types.
- Overall textbook wide changes that is common for each chapter,
- Changes done specific to each chapters.
Before we dive into the general changes, here is a list of chapters deleted, retained/modified and chapters newly added.
- Chapters that were dropped: ಜೀವನದೃಷ್ಟಿ, ಧರ್ಮಸಮದೃಷ್ಟಿ, ಎಮ್ಮನುಡಿಗೇಳ್, ವಚನ ಸೌರಭ ಜೇಡರದಾಸಿಮಯ್ಯ, ಸಂಕಟಕೆ ಗಡಿ ಇಲ್ಲ, ವಿಜ್ಞಾನ ಮತ್ತು ಸಮಾಜ, ನಾಮಫಲಕ, ಉದಾತ್ತ ಚಿಂತನೆಗಳು, ಪಾರಿವಾಳ
- New chapters added: ಯುದ್ಧ, ಲಂಡನ್ ನಗರ, ವಿ. ಕೃ. ಗೋಕಾಕ್, ಹಸುರು, ಛಲಮನೆ ಮೆರೆವೆಂ, ಕೆಮ್ಮನೆ ಮೀಸೆವೊತ್ತನೇ, ಸ್ವಾಮಿ ವಿವೇಕಾನಂದರ ಚಿಂತನೆಗಳು, ವಸಂತ ಮುಖ ತೋರಲಿಲ್ಲ, ಭಗತ್ ಸಿಂಗ್, ಮೃಗ ಮತ್ತು ಸುಂದರಿ
- Retained chapters: ಶಬರಿ, ‘ಭಾಗ್ಯಶಿಲ್ಪಿ ಸರ್ ಎಂ. ವಿಶ್ವೇಶ್ವರಯ್ಯ, ಎದೆಗೆ ಬಿದ್ದ ಅಕ್ಷರ, ವ್ಯಾಘ್ರಗೀತೆ, ಸಂಕಲ್ಪಗೀತೆ, ವೃಕ್ಷಸಾಕ್ಷಿ ,. ಹಕ್ಕಿಹಾರುತಿದೆ ನೋಡಿದಿರಾ, ಹಲಗಲಿ ಬೇಡರು, ಕೌರವೇಂದ್ರನ ಕೊಂದೆ ನೀನು, ವೀರಲವ, ಒಗಟುಗಳು.
The language exercises have been reshuffled and changed a bit. A summary of that is given in the section under each chapter that it appears now.
The common changes in all the chapters that were retained meticulously noted by our volunteers is summarised below.
Minor changes in the terms/headlines used: We observed some minor changes to the terms used in the textbook. For example,
- The introduction to chapter is now called ‘ಪ್ರವೇಶ’ instead of ‘ಮುನ್ತಯಾರಿ’. Similarly, ಕರ್ತೃ-ಭಾವ-ಆಕರ ⇒ ಕೃತಿಕಾರರ ಪರಿಚಯ, ಪಠ್ಯಾಧಾರ ಟಿಪ್ಪಣಿ ⇒ ಟಿಪ್ಪಣಿ, ಪದ - ಅರ್ಥ ⇒ ಪದಗಳ ಅರ್ಥ ,ಪದ ವಿಂಗಡಣೆ ⇒ ಪದ ವಿಂಗಡಿಸಿ ಓದಿ
- Some aspects of the retained chapters are trimmed short: The glossary of terms for each chapter that used to be under ‘ಅರ್ಥೈಸಿ ಓದಿ- ‘ has been removed in all chapters.
- The conceptual idea of the chapter highlighted: the section is put under the new heading ‘ಆಶಯಭಾವ’. describing the concept and idea of the chapter used to be ‘ಕೃತಿಕಾರರ ಪರಿಚಯ’. This section now stands with a new heading and is easy to locate in the new version. In some chapters, additional explanation to these sections has been included.
Grammar and language exercises or ಅಭ್ಯಾಸ parts were reshuffled and trimmed in the 2017 publication compared to 2014.
There were changes made to the content, grammar and language exercise section of the retained chapters. Grammar and language exercises or ಅಭ್ಯಾಸ parts were reshuffled and trimmed in the 2017 publication compared to 2015.
- ಶಬರಿ: In the ಪಠ್ಯಾಧಾರ ಟಿಪ್ಪಣಿ, paragraph explaining the story of ಶಬರಿ has been trimmed to just one sentence ‘ಶಬರನ ಮಗಳು, ಮತಂಗ ಋಷಿ ಶಿಷ್ಯೆ’ although significance of this change is unclear.
- Entire section of ಸೈದ್ಧಾಂತಿಕ ಭಾಷಾಭ್ಯಾಸ is replaced with new content.
- ಭಾಗ್ಯಶಿಲ್ಪಿ ಸರ್ ಎಂ. ವಿಶ್ವೇಶ್ವರಯ್ಯ: This chapter has now a portion ನಾಲ್ವಡಿ ಕೃಷ್ಣರಾಜ ಒಡೆಯರು that narrates the contribution of the then Maharaja of Mysore to the development of mysore state, hence the change in the title of the chapter to ಭಾಗ್ಯಶಿಲ್ಪಿಗಳು.
- ಎದೆಗೆ ಬಿದ್ದ ಅಕ್ಷರ: Paragraphs starting with ‘ಬುದ್ಧನಂತೂ ಎಲ್ಲ ಸಹಸ್ರಮಾನವನ್ನೂ ಮೀರಿದವನು…...to ‘ಮಲೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಮದುಮಗಳು’ ಪುಣ್ಯದಂತೆ ನನಗೆ ಕಾಣಿಸುತ್ತವೆ was deleted. In these 2 paragraphs autor shares his perception and appreciation of Buddha, Paramahamsa, kannada vachanas and some of the works of poets like Bendre and Kuvempu. Two new paragraphs narrating the significance and impacts of Vachana sahitya is added to the text.
- ವ್ಯಾಘ್ರಗೀತೆ: In ಸೈದ್ಧಾಂತಿಕ ಭಾಷಾಭ್ಯಾಸ section, ನಾಮ ಪದಗಳು and ಕೃದಂತ is replaced with new content on ತದ್ದಿತಾಂತ added. Nevertheless retaining the explanation about ‘ನಾಮ ಪದಗಳು and then building on from there to both ಕೃದಂತ‘ and ತದ್ದಿತಾಂತ would make it more comprehensible and complete.
- ವೃಕ್ಷಸಾಕ್ಷಿ: In ಸೈದ್ಧಾಂತಿಕ ಭಾಷಾಭ್ಯಾಸ, ಛಂದಸ್ಸು portions of ಸ್ರಗ್ಧರಾವೃತ್ತ and ಮಹಾಸ್ರಗ್ಧರಾವೃತ್ತ were removed.
- ಸಂಕಲ್ಪಗೀತೆ: In ಸೈದ್ಧಾಂತಿಕ ಭಾಷಾಭ್ಯಾಸ, a clear and detailed description of ‘ಅರ್ಥರೂಪ ಕ್ರಿಯಾಪದಗಳು’ has been added with a good set of examples.
- ಹಕ್ಕಿಹಾರುತಿದೆ ನೋಡಿದಿರಾ: A new detailed summary on the concept and idea of the poem is given in the paragraph titled ‘ಶುಕ್ರ, ಚಂದ್ರ, ಮಂಗಳ ಲೋಕ ಸಂಚಾರ ಕಾಲದ ಒಂದು ಭೌತಿಕ ಲಕ್ಷಣ……”.
- ಭಾಷಾ ಚಟುವಟಿಕೆ section of ಸೈದ್ಧಾಂತಿಕ ಭಾಷಾಭ್ಯಾಸ has few minor changes.
- ಹಲಗಲಿ ಬೇಡರು: ಟಿಪ್ಪಣಿ a new section has been included explains the meaning of locally used words such as ಚಟೆಕಾರಾರು, ಹೆಬಲಕ್ ಸಾಬ್, ಕಾರಸಾಹೇಬ and ಕುಂಪಣಿ.
- Few new words and their meanings are added in ಪದ - ಅರ್ಥ section.
- ಕೌರವೇಂದ್ರನ ಕೊಂದೆ ನೀನು: few minor changes in the content of introduction and activities are noted. Reframing of the last t line in 'ಪ್ರವೇಶ..., from “ಕರುಣೆಗೆ ಹೆಸರಾಗಿದ್ದ ಕರ್ಣನಿಗೆ ಎಂತಹ ಸಂಕಟವನ್ನು ಉಂಟುಮಾಡಿತು; ಅವನ ಸ್ವಾಮಿನಿಷ್ಠೆಯ ಮುಂದೆ ಶ್ರೀಕೃಷ್ಣನೊಡ್ಡಿದ ಪ್ರಲೋಭನೆ ಹೇಗೆ ವ್ಯರ್ಥಗೊಂಡಿತೆಂಬುದನ್ನು ತಿಳಿಸುವುದು ಈ ಕಾವ್ಯಭಾಗದ ಆಶಯ”.. to “ಕರುಣೆಗೆ ಹೆಸರಾಗಿದ್ದ ಕರ್ಣನಿಗೆ ಎಂತಹ ಸಂಕಟವನ್ನು ಉಂಟುಮಾಡಿತು; ಅವನ ಸ್ವಾಮಿನಿಷ್ಟೆಯ ಮುಂದೆ ಶ್ರೀಕೃಷ್ಣನೊಡ್ಡಿದ ಪ್ರಲೋಭನೆ ಹೇಗೆ ವ್ಯರ್ಥಗೊಂಡಿತೆಂಬುದನ್ನು ಇಲ್ಲಿ ಗುರುತಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ” is mere change in the word play rather than enhancing or emphasisng the idea or core concept of the selected text.
- In ‘ಸೈದ್ಧಾಂತಿಕ ಭಾಷಾಭ್ಯಾಸ’. Content explaining ‘ರೂಪಕಾಲಂಕಾರ’ in ಅಲಂಕಾರ portion has been deleted. It was essential retain this portion as the author ಕುಮಾರವ್ಯಾಸ is known as king of ‘ರೂಪಕಾಲಂಕಾರ’ and also we can see the usage in this text portion as well(‘ಮಾರಿಗೌತಣವಾಯ್ತು ನಾಳಿನ ಭಾರತವು’ ). hence it would be beneficial for the students. Interestingly, the ಭಾಷಾ ಚಟುವಟಿಕೆ’ portion even has a activity on ‘ಅಲಂಕಾರ’
- ವೀರಲವ: Narration of the concept and idea in the ‘ಆಶಯಭಾವ’. portion is crisp and compact compared to old content. 2 new portions of the poem are given In ಚಟುವಟಿಕೆ portion instead of one in the old edition.
- ಒಗಟುಗಳು: Total number of ಒಗಟುಗಳು was reduced from 12 to 6. Consistent with textbook wide changes, the glossary section ‘ಪದ - ಅರ್ಥ’ has been removed. We felt it would have been useful to retaining the glossary given the fact that the text uses not so common folk vocabulary and contemporary meaning would have enabled students to understand and appreciate the content better.
In the retained chapters, new edition has mostly been minor changes and they are limited to renaming, reshuffling and trimming the of the old content.
Few major changes were made to the grammar portions which included addition of new content and removing the portions of old content. We also note that trimming of some of the content was not the best approach and we found these content to be mostly relevant and useful for students.